UNICEF's mandate is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. This is an international human rights instrument that sets out the basic rights of children and the obligations of governments to fulfill those rights. It has been ratified – a formal term for governments signing up – by all but two governments in the world. Australia signed the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990. The Convention is the foundation of UNICEF’s work and sets out rights for the survival, development, protection and participation of children.